2015-06-22 14:29:13Ame.

Research Methods Assignment 2.

= ___=  因為HD 君於去年還是前年掛掉了, 所以很多功課資料都沒有了, 還有其他重要的東西都沒了, 一千零二張的合照, 也不爭在了。 反而電話君的OFFICE 有份PPT 同功課, 死命拯救中。


University of Wales Institute, Cardiff / HKU SPACE

MSc in Food Safety Management
HS 27-801-00 [01]
Research Methods Assignment 2

Critical review
Select between 6 to 12 articles – from the research literature that are related to the area you have chosen to do your proposal on. The articles should be related to your research questions and have information in them that will help you know more about the topic, know some of the research already conducted in the area and what the results of that reviewed research is.

Critical Review: Macau Consumers’ Awareness, Attitude and Product Labeling towards GM Food Products

Table of Content
Exposure and level of awareness of GM foods of consumers in Macau
Lack of regulations and resources of GM food information and labeling in Macau SAR
Research questions
Concept and plan on the research
Since the genetic engineering on food has been developed for decades, and in the 1990s the GM foods were introduced to the market. In 1999, the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC), cooperating with WHO ( World Health Organization) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) , the Codex Ad hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology (TFFDB) aims at building up the standards, guidelines and recommendations towards the GM food engineering to protect consumers’ health and fair trade practice. 

In the study of Kim et al. (2004), student survey indicated that a high percentage of the Asian students are well informed about GMOs (Genetically Modified organisms), but in contrary that a low percentage of the Asian students considered the GM food is safe. The result implies that thought consumer are informed about the GM food production and the percentage of GMOs in the food ingredients, for the potential risk and the uncertain outcome after years of consuming GM food, consumers still resist and worry about the GM food comparing to the traditional food.

In national agricultural policy, the Chinese government began to develop the biotechnology in food production in 1970s, so as to tackle with the food security problem due to the rapid growth of population. To effectively maintain the productivity of food and the farm income (both in domestic demand and export), and a stable food supply every year, China now is one of the first country to introduce GM food in commercial use. So far China has become the 6th largest producer of biotechnology enhance plants base on total acreage of 3.8 million hectors in 2007 (Chakraborty , 2011). Being a large producer of biotechnology food product, two Chinese Government departments issued the GMO regulations. The Ministry of Agriculture issued a regulation "Implementation Regulations on Labeling of Agricultural Genetically Modified organisms” which was effective on 20 March 2002. Under the regulation, five categories of GM crops including soy bean, corn, cotton, grape seed and tomato, as well as some of their products are required to be labeled. And on 1 July 2002, the Ministry of Health enacted a regulation of "Health Administration Regulation on Transgenic Food" indicates that all GM foods should be properly labeled (FEHD, 2011).

Mandatory labeling on GM food is not widely implemented in countries around the world. According to the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC), it is unlikely to be able to set internationally agreed standards in near future. Policies on GM food labeling vary in different countries and areas at present. The labeling standards are various form different countries, but the common point is that the food contains genetically modified ingredients is limited to a percentage of that country, it should be labeled as "genetically modified food ", and some refined foods such as corn oil or soybean oil are more difficult to control due to the food product are highly processed; comparing to the same material but lightly processed food (tofu). 

Exposure and level of awareness of GM foods of consumers in Macau 
Macau is a city mainly depends on imported food, and the majority of agricultural products and fresh food are imported from the mainland China. In the Health Bureau in Macao, the official government web page, no detailed information was found on aspects of GM foods (or the GM-free foods, organic foods), and the public awareness of GM foods is not high. In contrast, organic food has a certain market in Macau; for the citizens are tend to have a concept of healthy eating and they think that organic food is safe and healthy. With little informed by the public and the government, consumers in Macau have lower knowledge on GM food (neither positive nor negative concept); and lack of awareness of the food product they consume daily might be genetically modified. Therefore, a questionnaire survey will be carried to the people in Macao to buy form their awareness of GM foods, the purchasing behavior, and their opinions in GM food labeling. 

Lack of regulations and resources of GM food information and labeling in Macau SAR
Though the implementation of the food labeling in Macao has been come into effect on January 1, 2008, In the legislation of Decree No. 50/92/M (food labeling laws); there are still many loopholes for there is no mention in  nutrition labeling, nutrition claims and the labeling of genetically modified foods. Comparing the information on GM food provided by FEHD in Hong Kong, so far the mandatory labeling system on GM food is not implemented for the increased cost will influence the trade especially the SMEs; but the FEHD encourages enterprises to implement a voluntary labeling scheme (FEHD, 2011). 

Research Questions 
From some of studies relevant to the consumer’s attitude, willingness to pay (WTP), acceptance on the GM food; it seem to be suggested that a negative attitude on biotechnology food form the European countries, and a tendency of the consumer are willing to pay a premium to buy non-GM or GM-free food. In the study of Bukenya (2007) and Grimsrud et al (2002), there is an interesting result that consumers are easier to accept to purchase the GM food with a discount, and no further discussion of the changing of their purchasing behavior from not willing to purchase the GM food with the same price as non-GM foods. And that leads to a doubt, suppose that consumers have a certain awareness of GM food, and what kind of conditions that can influence the WTP of them to the GM food products? Besides, and will the consumer with higher knowledge on GM technology (Angulo, 2007) or the relevant science education level (Dumitras, 2006) influence their preferences of GM or GM-free food consuming? What are the conditions that the consumer will take into consideration, the price or the GM food labeling? And what the consumer behave base on their social income or education level (Şentürk, 2009)?

And the other part is worth to be discussed that both the GM and non-GM food products appear in the same market, difference in price (mostly the GM-food is lower in cost); and the issue of the public confidence to the government, or the reputation of the government will affect the WTP or the WTA (willingness to accept) of the consumers? And their purchasing behavior is relevant to their knowledge or their belief? For Barker and Burnham (2001) have suggested that the consumer behavior is determined “less by how much consumers know, and more by what they believe”. To build up the public confidence on the concept of “GM food is safe”, some credible academic organizations and official department (FDA) give the support (Bukenya, 2007). 

For the mandatory labeling issue of the GM food, probably think of the increase in food costs, as well as dealing with GM food and the non-GM food will also increase cost of food, and that may influence the consumers’ choices and the economy. Besides, researchers (Fulton et al. 2004, Crespi et al. 2003) found that consumers are willing to pay a premium of the mandatory labeling of the non-GM foods and that will benefit the society. And does the premium of GM food labeling ensure the consumer to purchase in a situation of higher food security?

Concept and plan on the research 
From this research, not only the awareness of GM food and the GM food labeling will be discussed; the public confidence of the GM food will also be concerned. Due to the Chinese food scandals happened during the decades, such as the melamine contaminated infant powder milk in 2008, in February 2011, the ‘Cadmium’ rice the leather milk scandal (leather-hydrolyzed protein contamination), and the latest reported in April 2011, the toxic bean sprouts in Shenyang . Chakraborty (2011) has asked a question about the existing food safety surveillance, tests and legislation really protect the consumers purchasing the food in the Greater China (especially in mainland china). Thought the food scandals of China are not GM food related, it is need to take into consideration that how the mandatory labeling, the food safety risk assessment, and the surveillance of China government will rebuild the public confidence towards consumers. And through this research, we hope that an actual reflects of the GM food awareness and purchasing attitude form the Macau people. 

Ana M. Angulo and José M. Gil. (2007).Spanish Consumers’ Attitudes and Acceptability towards GM Food Products. Agricultural Economics Review

Barker, A.G., & Burnham, T.A.(2001). Consumer response to genetically modified foods: Marketsegment analysis and implications for producers and policy makers. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 26, 2, 387– 403.

Crespi, J.M., & Marette, S. (2003). Does Contain versus Does Not Contain. Does it Matter Which GMO Label is
Used? European Journal of Law and Economics, 16, 327-344.

Diana DUMITRAŞ.(2006). Attitudes and intentions toward purchasing GM foods among college students in Romania.  Agricultura, agricultural practice and science journal, Vol 59, No 3-4.

Fulton, M., & Giannaken, K. (2004). Inserting GM products into the Food Chain: The Market and welfare Effect of Different Labeling and Regulatory Regimes. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86(1). 42-60.

Hyun-Seok Kim andKwansoo Kim. (2004). A multi-country assessment of consumer attitudes of genetically modified foods and the implications for new labeling system. American Agricultural Economics Association>2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO. 

İsmail Şentürk. (2009) Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Foods in Turkey: An Ordered Probit Analysis. The Empirical Economics Letters, 8(5): (May 2009) ISSN 1681 8997.

James O. Bukenya, Natasha R. Wright.(2007).Determinants of Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intentions With Regard to Genetically Modified Tomatoes. Agribusiness Volume 23, Issue 1, pages 117–130.

Kristine M. Grimsrud, Jill J. McCluskey, Maria L. Loureiro, and Thomas I. Wahl. (2002). Consumer Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Food in Norway. Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 55, Issue 1, pages 75–90.

Simon Chege Kimenju, Hugo De Groote. (2008). Consumer willingness to pay for genetically modified food in Kenya. Agricultural Economics, Volume 38, Issue 1, pages 35–46, January 2008. 

AGNS. (2011). Biotechnology (GM food). Available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/biotechnology_en.asp

WHO. (2011). Biotechnology (GM foods) and nanotechnology. Available at: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/

FEHD. (2011).Centre for Food Safety - Programme Areas - Genetically Modified Food. Available at: http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/programme/programme_gmf/programme_gmf.html